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Issue No. 46

Composer Speaks

Jelena Novak, Ksenija Stevanović – THE VELICON: MAGNETIC ATTRACTION OF MUSIC AND SERENDIPITY. An interview with Jasna Veličković
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Core Issue – Voice of Women

Žarko Cvejić – FEMININE CHARMS AND HONORARY MASCULINIZATION/DE-FEMINIZATION: GENDER AND THE CRITICAL RECEPTIONOF THE VIRTUOSE, 1815–1848
Abstract: This article discusses the work of 19th-century gender norms in the reception of contemporary piano virtuose, led by Clara Wieck Schumann and Marie Moke Pleyel. The discussion reveals telling discrepancies between the reception of the virtuose and their male colleagues, such as Liszt, who were mostly celebrated in hyper-masculine terms, as “heroes”, “gods”, and the like, while the virtuose were praised mainly on account of their visual appearance rather than virtuosic prowess, rejecting any comparison on an equal footing with the virtuosi. Finally, in a number of reviews, Wieck and Moke were explicitly proclaimed “honorary males” on account of their skills. This shows 19th-century gender norms at work, reserving excellence in any intellectual task to men, even when displayed by women.
Keywords: virtuosity, virtuose, gender, 19th century.
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Mina Božanić – SEEN THROUGH HIS EYES: THE REPRESENTATION OF FEMALE CHARACTERS IN BÉLA BARTÓK’S STAGE WORKS
Abstract
: The question of gender representation in Béla Bartók’s (1881–1945) stage works is discussed through the prism of cultural studies, with reference to the intellectual, social and political atmosphere in which the composer shaped his ideas. In this sense, it is provocative to question how the stereotyped images of women influenced/merged with Bartók’s personal view on women, or is it, maybe, possible that one intimate conception of female characters, reflected the composer’s specific relationship toward women? Thе treatment of the female character will be shown through the analysis of the plot and key scenes in Bartók’s stage work.
Keywords: modernism, Judith, The Girl, The Princess, female character, Bartók.
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Smiljka Jovanović – VOICE AS A MASQUERADE: AUDIBLE GENDER PERFORMANCE IN SEVERAL REPRESENTATIVE THEORETICAL DISCOURSES ON FEMALE IDENTITY
Abstract: Tracing different approaches to the notion of gender masquerade, this study promotes the idea that a female subjectivity can be constituted, represented and socially situated by the means of audible masquerade. Given that the masquerade is understood here as an ongoing, recurrent, strategic and creative audible performance, the female voice, either in its real form (singing in opera, for instance) or in its metaphorical sense (écriture fémine), is taken as a gender mask par excellence. The study aims to shed some light on social and theoretical contextualization of female voice and its oppositions to the paradigm of male word / male voice.
Keywords: voice, female voice, masquerade, audible masquerade, voice as a masquerade.
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Mariela Cvetić – DAS UNHEIMLICHE AND WOMEN: THE CASE OF THE TALES OF HOFFMANN
Abstract: This paper analyses Freud’s concept of Das Unheimliche used to describe a strange proximity between the known and the unknown, whether as something acquainted represents itself with an extraneous shape or as something extraneous discovers an element of intimacy in itself. Freud inaugurated this concept in the text Das Unheimliche in 1919 referring to cases in which the subject in relation to objects or events has feelings that range from usual closeness to the point of utter automated perception, when an object or event appears strange. The automatism of repetition is only one of manifestations of Das Unheimliche.
Freud wrote this text responding to the text by Ernest Jentsch’s “On the Psychology of Des Unheimlichen” (“Uber die Psychologie des Unheimlichen”) from 1906 arguing on the importance and significance of the doll Olympia in Hoffmann’s story “The Sandman”. The position of Olympia – whether she was seen as alive or as a machine – remained the main issue in late discussions of various authors. Therefore, Das Unheimliche and women are very closely related, not only because the concept is based on the female character of Olympia from the story, but also because Freud himself emphasized the Das Unheimliche character of the female body.
The paper discusses the relation between Das Unheimliche and women, and reconsiders the relation between Das Unheimliche aspects of female characters in The Tales of Hoffmann. Short stories “The Sandman”, “Councillor Krespel” and “A New Year’s Eve Adventure” were also chosen by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré for the opera “Tales of Hoffmann” by Jacques Offenbach, in which the leading roles of Stela, Olympia, Antonia and Giulietta are in fact one woman who takes a variety of forms.
Keywords: Das Unheimliche, women, mechanism, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Olympia.
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Julijana Zhabeva Papazova – WOMEN’S VOICES IN ALTERNATIVE MUSIC – LISA GERRARD AND ELIZABETH FRASER
Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of Lisa Gerrard’s and Elizabeth Fraser’s vocal styles that promoted a new way of singing on the alternative music scene. Instead of the traditional usage of lyrics in the English language as their mother tongue, they use so called ‘glossolalia’, meaning wordless, or substituting language with a melodic, exploratory rapture by their vocal range alone in a couple of octaves. The main points of analysis are the relationships between the vocal interpretation and instruments, music form, main melodic themes, rhythm, accomplished with iconography in the relationship between vocal interpretations and stage performances.
Keywords: alternative music, Lisa Gerrard, Elizabeth Fraser, vocal analysis, glossolalia.
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Views

Ira Prodanov Krajišnik – MUSIC FESTIVITIES OF NOVI SAD (NOMUS) IN 2015 AND SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE
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Kalliopi Stiga – FERNANDO-LOPES GRAÇA AND MIKIS THEODORAKIS: MUSIC, POETRY AND IDEOLOGY IN THE 20TH CENTURY
Abstract: Considering that “music of resistance” is the expression of the dialectic relation between society and history as well as the reflection of the ideological and intellectual position of the creator-interpreter in the face of social and historical reality, the aim of this paper is: a) to present the social-political context which inspired Fernando Lopes-Graça and Mikis Theodorakis, to be creative, b) to highlight how their ideology is expressed in their musical and literary works and c) to reveal the ‘epic character’ of their music through a music-poetical analysis of the Canções Heróicas of F.L. Graça and of the Τραγούδια του Αγώνα of M. Theodorakis.
Keywords: Fernando-Lopes Graça, Mikis Theodorakis, 20th Century, music and politics.
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Ana Szilágyi – A THEORY OF PIANO INTERPRETATION BASED ON CYBERNETICS
Abstract: Ana Pitiş and Ioana Minei discovered in the 70–80s, a complex theory of piano interpretation that gives another view in the art of piano playing. The two authors systematically research the original musical information coming from the composer. This information passes through more codes until it is perceived by the public: through the musical text (the score), through the musical images of the interpreter and through technical means. The merit of this theory lies in the fact that the authors point out the audio-mental operations that take place in the brain of the interpreter reading the score before playing. This interior hearing is based on musically characteristic operations, on sound ordering, respecting musical laws. The advantage of these operations is that the piano sound is no longer perceived as mechanical, but espressive, with meaning. In the opinion of the authors, the feedback of the cybernetics causes the sound perception of the public: the sound will be heard with qualities such as timbre, dynamics and expression.
Keywords: information, code, feedback, audio-mental operations, interior hearing
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Research and Tradition

Selena Rakočević – DANCING IN THE DANUBE GORGE: GEOGRAPHY, DANCE, AND INTERETHNIC PERSPECTIVES
Abstract: This paper will look at dance practices of Romanian and Serbian villagers along the Danube Gorge which historically functioned as a natural and political boundary. Opportunities for dancing in all villages in the Gorge are still very common and frequented especially during the summer time. Based on my field reseach, carried out since 2011, the paper examines the contemporary dance practice of this region. My methodological orientation will be based on the ethnochoreological investigation of diverse repertoires, but also diverse dance structures as “predictable” dance texts designated during previous times as Romanian or Serbian, which are interpolated by the villagers. The notion of geographical place considered in the sense of a distinct “culture area”, which, according to Bruno Nettl is grounded in the history of ethnomusicology, but also ethnochoreology, will be challenged by applying Martin Stokes’ concept of (geographical) place as a social construction which involves notions of difference and social boundary. The following question will be raised: In what way does contemporary village dancing in the Danube Gorge correspond to the idea of establishing Romanian society as a part of the New Europe? In what way does the current (re)positioning of this historically and geographically distinct territory influence its contemporary dance practice? How is the concept of the ethnic dance (Romanian and Serbian) recognized both by insiders (villagers) and outsiders (the State institutions and scholars) and does this correspond to the new social and political context of contemporary Romanian society?
Keywords: the Danube Gorge, contemporary dance practice, ethnicity
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Jeremy Logan – SYNESTHESIA AND FEMINISM: A CASE STUDY ON AMY BEACH (1867–1944)
Abstract: As one of the most notable American woman composers of the early 20th Century, Amy Beach had to struggle with her social role as a woman born into the middle class of New England, USA. Before marrying into the upper class, she was already established as a concert pianist. Her husband pressured her not to perform in public, which affected her emotionally and compositionally. This paper will re-evaluate the work of Amy Beach within the context of her strugg/les as a woman composer and more specifically focus on her synesthesia and how it influenced her choice of keys and modes within her music. The colors of her keys will be compared to affects according to color psychology, as well as affects of key signatures.
Keywords: Amy Beach, American music, synesthesia, feminism, gender studies, colorkey associations, music perception, compositional process
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Romana A. Ribić – CONTEMPORARY MUSIC OF ICELAND IN THE POST-ROMANTIC PERIOD: JÓRUNN VIĐAR (JÓRUNN VÍÐAR, REYKJAVÍK, ICELAND, 1918–)
Abstract: Тhis paper presents a brief overview of the development of Icelandic music through historical and artistic circumstances. We shall also point to the specific social attitude towards the female population and we shall deal with the few Icelandic women composers. Among them Jórunn Víđar particularly stands out, as a pianist, accompanist and music teacher. For over two decades, she was the only woman composer to be a member of the Society of Icelandic Composers. She wrote the music for the first Icelandic ballet suite and the first Icelandic film ever, arranging the old narrative songs called the ‘thulur’ as a pioneer. Her oeuvre includes a piano concerto, music for theater and film, chamber and choral music and solo songs. She was awarded the Order of the Falcon for accomplishments in music by the president of Iceland.
Keywords: Iceland, history, culture, music, women composers, Jórunn Víđar
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Analysis

R. Armstrong, Lauren Redhead – /’(H)WETH: VOICE – BREATH – BODY – FORM/S
Abstract: /’(h)weTH is a collaborative work of visual and sound art produced by R. Armstrong (USA) and Lauren Redhead (UK). The work combines an installation, two video projections, four channel sound, and an optional solo performance part, in order to create an experience that is simultaneously aural and visual, in all of its elements. This article sets out to further explore the main themes of the work, by means of a dialogue between the voices of the two artists. In doing so, it also facilitates a discussion of how /’(h)weTH might contribute to an understanding of the materiality of sound art, and the boundaries between visual art, sound art, and music.
Keywords: voice, breath, body, embodiment, sound art
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New Works

Adriana Sabo – WOMAN AND/OR WATER: WHO IS SVETLANA SAVIĆ’S TRAPPED?
Abstract: Svetlana Savić was given the “Mokranjac” award for her composition titled Trapped (2014), written for female choir and electronics. Originally composed for a multimedia project realized by the “Collegium Musicum” choir titled Water, Savić’s piece was inspired by water trapped inside pipes, a subject that enabled her to realize the musical flow using a variety of murmurs and noises, as well as to expand upon the numerous possibilities offered by the contrast between a female voice and electronically produced sounds. The musical language of Trapped can thus be understood as the result of research into the possibilities offered by the sonic traits of the musical material, the relationship between consonant and dissonant intervals – mostly seconds and thirds – and as a very compact, yet incredibly expressive musical manifestation of feelings of captivity and fear of drowning.
Keywords: Trapped, Svetlana Savić, “Mokranjac” award, water, expression
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Zorica Premate – MEDIAL 623 BY VLADIMIR TOŠIĆ
Abstract: The subject of the article is Medial 623, a piece by Vladimir Tošić, and examines the composer’s “trademark” strict minimalist style in light of the “postmodernist turn”.
Keywords: minimalism, reductionism, abstraction, repetitiveness, postmodernism, simulation, play, phantasm
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Reviews

Sonja CvetkovićStevan Stojanović Mokranjac (1856–1914) – Inostrane koncertne turneje sa Beogradskim pevačkim društvom, Biljana Milanović (urednik). Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac (1856–1914) – The Belgrade Choral Society Foreign Concert Tours, Institute of Musicology of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Serbian Musicological Society Belgrade, 2014
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Vesna Karin – ДВД Селене Ракочевић Tрадиционални плесови Срба у Банату. Антологија. Етнокореолошки теренски видео-снимци. Selena Rakočević’s DVD: Traditional Dances of the Banat Serbs. Antology. Ethnochoreological Field Footage. Belgrade: Center for the Research and Preservation of Traditional Dances of Serbia (CIOTIS), 2014
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Ana Kotevska – François Nicolas: Le monde – Musique (I – L’œuvre musicale et son écoute), Edition Aedam Musicae, Paris, 2014, 259 pp.
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Ira Prodanov Krajišnik – Music as the “Supra-Narrative Content” of Film Marija Ćirić: Vidljivi prostori muzike. Superlibretto – Govor muzike u filmu [Visible Areas Of Music: Super-Libretto – The Speech of Music In Film], Filum, Kragujevac, 2015, 208.
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Radoš Mitrović – Darko Karajić (Baroque Lute, Theorbo, Baroque Guitar, Archlute): Journey: Music of the XVII and XVIII Centuries Publisher: Edition Lilac, 2015
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Defended Theses

Zoran Božanić – Teorija složenog kontrapunkta na primeru muzičke prakse strogog stila. Theory of Complex Counterpoint on the Example of Strict Style Musical Practice
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Iva Nenić – Дерегулација канона: Идентитети, праксе и идеологије женског свирања на традиционалним инструментима у Србији. Deregulating the Canon: Identities, Practices, and Ideologies of Women’s Playing of Traditional Instruments in Serbia
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